How to properly grow strawberries outdoors
Strawberries have an unforgettable taste and aroma, thanks to which they are loved by both adults and children. This berry is very popular, but its price is quite high, and it is much more profitable to grow strawberries on your own right at their summer cottage.
Is it possible to grow strawberries in the country?
Growing strawberries on your own in a summer cottage is a very painstaking, but at the same time, simple task. If all the rules are correctly followed, the plant will actively bear fruit and bring a good harvest.
The complexity of cultivation lies in the fact that when cultivating strawberries, you will have to spend a lot of energy on performing such everyday actions as watering and weeding.
It is possible to grow this berry in the open ground in the garden both in the southern and northern latitudes and in Siberia. The key to success in this case will be correct selection of the variety, which must be adapted to the specific location. The modern market can offer a huge number of types of strawberries. They all differ from each other according to criteria such as climatic resistance, ripening time, fruit size and taste, etc.
When planning to plant strawberries in your country house, you also need to make sure that it feels comfortable. For this, the berries are placed in a light, sandy loam or loamy soil.
Popular species and good varieties for Siberia
It is best for beginners to stop their attention on well-known varieties that have already established themselves:
- Daryonka - this early ripe variety boasts immunity to fungal diseases and pests. Also, such a plant tolerates winter temperatures well and brings a large amount of harvest. Berries of medium size (15-20 grams) have a blunt cone shape. The taste is pleasant, sweet and sour;
- Kama - this variety has excellent frost and drought resistance. There is a susceptibility to infection with brown or white spot. Large fruits, weighing 25-35 grams, are made in the form of a rounded rhombus, the presence of ribbing is characteristic. When fully ripe, the skin takes on a maroon hue. The pulp is juicy, tender and sweet and sour;
- Mashenka - a variety of Russian selection is perfectly adapted to the conditions of the middle lane. The plant is not afraid of diseases and recurrent frosts, but at the same time it brings a good harvest. The leaves on the bushes are large, and the flower stalks are powerful and stable. The oblong, bright red berries have a pleasant taste and strawberry aroma;
- Queen Elizabeth - a feature of the remontant variety will be its large and very sweet fruits. The plant can tolerate severe frosts, recurrent frosts, insect attacks and diseases well. The yield is always at a high level. The main disadvantage of the variety will be that it does not form a mustache, so it will have to be propagated with the help of seeds.
Correct planting in a garden in the open field - step by step instructions
When planting strawberries in a summer cottage, it is first of all necessary decide on a deadline... The gardener has several options for the development of events:
- spring (April) - the strawberry bed must be prepared in the fall of the previous season;
- summer (July 20-25) - the garden is also prepared in the fall;
- autumn (September) - in this case, the soil for plants is prepared 2-3 weeks before work.
After the deadlines are determined, you can proceed to formation of beds... The place where they will be located must meet the following requirements:
- The soil should be sandy loam or loamy, necessarily breathable and nutritious;
- The optimum acidity level should be within 5.5-6.5 Ph... In the event that the indicator is lowered, it can be raised by adding dolomite flour. It is worth remembering that such work can only be carried out in the fall;
- Places where precipitation and melt water accumulate are not suitable for growing strawberries, because in this case there is a great risk of decay of the root system;
- Groundwater should be located at a depth equal to 70-80 centimeters;
- Experienced gardeners recommend placing strawberries separately from all other horticultural crops;
- The best precursors to strawberries are legumes, grains, or greens. It is not worth planting in places where tomatoes or potatoes previously grew;
- In order for the berries to ripen, to be juicy and sugary, the planting site must be sunny.
The method of forming the beds will depend on the chosen growing location. In the event that the site is located on a hill and is well illuminated by sunlight, it is enough to build a bulk bed with a height 10 centimeters... With a high location of groundwater, this indicator increases up to 35-40 centimeters.
The optimal landing width is 95-100 centimeters.
In order to make the soil more fertile, the following fertilizers are applied per square meter of soil:
- 8 kilograms of compost;
- 100 grams of superphosphate;
- 30 grams of potassium salt.
The next step is to select healthy seedlings:
- they should be free from traces of mechanical damage and disease;
- planting material with the most powerful and branched roots takes root best of all;
- the socket must be 3-4 leaves.
Before planting, you must carefully dig the soil to a depth of 25-30 centimeters.
Doing such work will help form a nutritional and water regime... Also, during the digging, you can find and destroy a variety of pests.
As soon as the preparatory work is completed, you can start planting plants:
- The best time to plant is early morning or late evening on a cloudy day;
- The standard planting pattern says that the distance between the rows is equal to 60-70 centimeters, and between individual plants 20-25 centimeters;
- The hole is dug to the depth 13-15 centimeters;
- When immersing the seedling in the ground, it is necessary to ensure that the root collar is at the same level with the ground. Otherwise, the plant will soon die;
- The last step will be abundant watering and mulching of the plantings.
Planting and growing strawberries is a fairly simple process, the main thing is to follow all the rules and take preparatory measures on time.
Technology and secrets of strawberry care for a good harvest
Strawberry care involves many aspects. There are no technologies and secrets to get the harvest. It is enough to follow the step-by-step instructions for planting and breeding, plant within the acceptable time frame and take care of it properly. water the plants properly, that is, waterlogging and drying out of the soil should not be allowed.
Experienced gardeners recommend watering strawberries after planting and flowering, while picking berries, in late summer and early fall. One bush will consume 1 liter of warm water. Immediately after watering, the plantings are mulched with a 7-8 centimeter layer of humus.
Fertilizers and feeding
Fertilize strawberries in accordance with the following scheme:
- In early spring, during the formation of leaves and after harvesting, the bushes are fertilized with nitrogen-containing fertilizers;
- In late August and early September, fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is performed;
- Before flowering and after harvesting, the plantings are fertilized with a manure solution, humus or wood ash.
Strawberries should never be fed with chlorine-containing fertilizers.
Protection against diseases and pests
Strawberry beds needed weed and loosen regularly... This procedure will be a good prevention of fungal diseases.
In the event that gray rot still struck the plant, in order to get rid of it before flowering, plantings are watered with a solution of iodine, a teaspoon of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. The performed procedure is repeated after 7-10 days.
For the prevention of diseases during flowering and after harvest, the following treatments are carried out:
- fungal diseases - "Fitosporin";
- spotting and gray rot - copper oxychloride;
- powdery mildew - 2 tablespoons of potassium permanganate, diluted in 10 liters of water.
During the entire growing season from the bushes remove mustache, this will contribute to the formation of a larger and more attractive crop. After picking the berries, it is necessary to cut off the entire green part of the plants, leaving only a few lower leaves.
Every 3-4 years, the planting must be renewed.
Preparing for winter
When growing strawberries in areas with a harsh and unpredictable climate, you should take care of plant protection for the winter. In order for the shrub to tolerate cold temperatures well, choose climate-resistant varieties.
To prepare the plant for winter, it abundantly watered and mulched with straw... With the onset of the first frost, the planting is covered with spruce branches, film, agrofibre or any other means at hand. If the winter has little snow, then you need to additionally throw snow on the ridges.
The subtleties of growing sweet and aromatic berries
In order to grow a harvest of tasty and juicy berries, you need to adhere to some rules:
- Best to pick up released and tested varieties, caring for which will not bring any particular difficulties;
- To get a good harvest, it is very important to adhere to the agricultural technology of growing strawberries, namely, to follow the rules of the neighborhood, to deliberately approach the place of plant growth and planting. It is also very important to correctly and feed and water on time bushes;
- Weeds take a large amount of nutrients from strawberries, so they need to be removed as soon as possible;
- Effective and timely disease control will help maintain the quality and quantity of the crop;
- The mustache depletes the plant, causing the berries to become smaller and the overall yield drops. To maintain fruiting, it is recommended remove shoots regularly strawberries.
Growing strawberries on your own plot is the dream of almost every gardener. In order to bring it to life, you must adhere to all the rules for plant cultivation and not neglect the advice of experienced gardeners.
How to properly grow strawberries outdoors
Strawberry is a forest-steppe plant. It grows on the outskirts of birch and aspen copses and around bushes, in hollows and forest-steppe zones. There are a lot of strawberries in the Samara region, Bashkiria, Ulyanovsk regions.
- Family: Pink.
- Type: Strawberry.
- Genus: Strawberry.
Growing strawberries in the open air is a difficult and troublesome business that a beginner cannot immediately figure out. It is possible to grow strawberries in any soil, since it is quite unpretentious to the characteristics of the soil. However, black soil with the addition of ash is still more favorable.
Propagate strawberries with rosettes. You can either buy sockets or grow them yourself. It is better to grow rosettes on the mustache of uterine bushes. A suitable seedling will be the one that is closer to the mother bush than others. No more than four outlets should be left on one shoot. Of course, you can leave six, but then the latter will be less developed.
Rosettes, in the process of their appearance, are fixed in moist soil, dropping small roots into the ground. These roots can be planted directly in pots with food, and the pots themselves must be dropped into the soil.
Tips for beginners
Many attempts by novice gardeners to get a good harvest of strawberries on their site lead to very average results - the berries grow watery, sour, rotten. And a lot of work has been invested in the strawberry garden. But do not despair and give up. The very first step is to decide what the garden should be. It is the wrong choice of location that often becomes the cause of failure.
- The garden bed must be located on an area that is protected from the wind, which in winter is at least 20-30 centimeters covered with a layer of snow. The site should be well lit, since there will be no harvest in the shade.
- The soil surface should be flat or slightly sloped to the southwest.
- Lowlands are not suitable for planting: in such places there is an accumulation of cold air, the plants will be sick, the harvest will be late.
- The southern slope for the garden is also not suitable: the snow melts too early and the bushes remain defenseless against frost.
- To prevent plant disease with fungal and viral diseases, it is imperative to change the place of cultivation every four, or even better - two years.
- It must be remembered: the more often the plants are planted, the smaller the berries will be (when harvesting, this is a clear drawback). To avoid this, the distance between the bushes should be about half a meter.
- The garden bed should not be waterlogged, but the lack of moisture is also destructive.
At about the fourth year of their life, strawberry bushes stop growing and begin to bear fruit poorly. Then healthy and strong bushes are replanted and fresh plants are planted. Transplanting strawberries can be done in late summer or spring. It is best to choose a cloudy day for such work. It is important to properly prepare the land in the beds, dig it up, adding appropriate fertilizers. When digging strawberry bushes from the ground, you need to be very careful. It is also recommended to pinch a quarter of the length of the main root, which will improve subsequent fruiting. After replanting the beds, it is recommended to water abundantly and cover the ground near the bush with sawdust or peat.
Outdoor strawberry care
After planting in open ground, the strawberries should build up their green mass. Therefore, fertilizers are applied for this.
Watering strawberry bushes is necessary every 3 days. Watering must be carried out at the root. Watering the beds is necessary in the evening after sunset. It is also recommended to irrigate the beds with water every few days in the evening. For this, many summer residents install special irrigation systems.
Make sure that weeds do not appear on the beds, which can act as causes of the appearance of diseases. After the buds begin to form, it is recommended to hilling the beds.
How to grow remontant strawberries outdoors
A feature of remontant strawberries is the ability to harvest several times a season. When growing strawberries, the following planting patterns can be used:
- strings - used very often. The planting material is planted in a bed at a distance of at least 15 cm from each other.A distance of 30 cm must be observed between the beds.This method makes it easier to care for the plant and prevents overgrowing of the beds
- carpet method - this scheme involves planting bushes at a distance of 5 cm. After growing, the bushes cover the area with a carpet. This planting method does not require maintenance. However, the disadvantages include quick spoilage of berries, and troublesome harvesting.
- nests - seedlings are planted in several pieces with bushes at a distance of at least 50 cm from each other. The advantage of this method is simple care, and the ability to thoroughly process the bushes from pests.
When choosing a planting scheme, each summer resident chooses a suitable method for himself, depending on the size of the site and personal preferences.
When is it better to plant strawberries using agrofibre: spring or autumn
Strawberries are usually planted in both spring and autumn. When using agrofibre, it is preferable to do this in the spring, since all stages of the process are typical for spring gardening work. The planted tubers develop faster and better, throw out tendrils, which can increase the yield next year. And the canvas after wintering does not need to be removed in order to clean it from debris and earth.
The disembarkation period depends solely on the climatic characteristics. In the middle lane, this is done from mid-April to early May.
Subtleties of care for a good harvest
The main points of care for a strawberry plantation on a personal plot are feeding and watering.
Humus, mullein, and bird droppings are the three basics of strawberry nutrition.
To meet all the needs of the crop, such a set of organic fertilizers is sufficient.
The first portion of fertilizer is applied in the spring, when processing plantings after winter.
After cutting off all the dead leaves, cleaning the garden, the bushes are mulched with humus, watered with infusion of mullein or bird droppings, and sprinkled with wood ash.
The second portion of the plant nutrition is obtained in preparation for flowering.
Mulching with humus at the end of the berry season will not only nourish the plants before wintering, but will also serve as an additional protective layer during frosts.
Proper watering is half the battle for the desired harvest. The organization of drip irrigation removes many questions.
But if this is not possible, then the following basics of watering strawberry beds must be observed:
- In dry weather, be sure to water the bushes once a week, early in the morning.
- It is necessary to maintain a balance between puddles in the aisles and drying out of the earthy coma: watering is abundant, but not excessive
- To protect the fruits from rot, try to water at the root
- During the ripening of berries, if there are dry sunny days, the frequency of watering is increased so that the earth dries out no more than a centimeter inward.
A few more nuances that help to achieve a rich harvest. One of the secrets of getting a big harvest of your favorite berry is as follows:
On young bushes preparing for the first flowering, the very first bud is cut off.
This stimulates the growth of the bush itself, building up the root mass and more abundant flowering.
The formed bushes are mulched with sawdust, straw, hay in order to save moisture from too rapid evaporation, block the way for weeds, and create a favorable microclimate around the bush.
If the berries are formed on the mother bush, then during flowering and fruiting, all whiskers are removed.
The procedure is required to be carried out regularly: the growing antennae draw out forces from the mother plant, which is preparing for fruiting.
Taking root, the rosettes on the mustache become competitors of the flowering and fruiting strawberry bush for moisture and nutrition.
During flooding rains, you can save the crop by covering the planting with a film fixed on arcs.
To prevent condensation from accumulating under the film and moist air from stagnating, the ends of the beds are left open.
Frequent visitors to the strawberry beds are birds that come to feast on. To protect the berries from birds, the beds are covered with a net.
Large heavy berries lying on the ground will become the prey of slugs, rather they begin to rot.
This can be prevented by propping the stalk on the trap, for example, threading the stem between the prongs of a plastic disposable fork, stick the cutlery with the handle into the ground.
Diseases and measures to combat them
Diseases of strawberries are rot, fusarium and phytosporous wilting, powdery mildew.
- Powdery mildew is a fungal infection that affects the entire aerial part of the plant. Leaves, stems, flowers and berries are covered with a white bloom. A favorable environment for the emergence and spread of infection is waterlogging, poor ventilation of plantings.
Measures to prevent powdery mildew:
- Spraying in early spring and before winter with a Bordeaux mixture of soil and bushes
- Compliance with the distance between the bushes during planting
- Timely weeding will improve the ventilation of the plantings
- Removing the rosette mustache also prevents moist air from stagnating
- Watering should not lead to stagnation of moisture between bushes and rows
They fight powdery mildew with the help of fungicides: in early spring, when the bushes are just forming, the second treatment is at the stage of flower bud formation, the third is after cutting the leaves for the winter.
From folk remedies, a solution of 20 g of soap and 20 g of vitriol, diluted in water (15 l), has proven itself well.
40 g of soda and soap per 10 liters of water - this solution can be used to treat bushes before flowering.
Ash solution: dilute 3 tablespoons of wood ash in a ten-liter bucket and leave for two days, then shake 40 g of laundry soap in a bucket and process the plants.
- Fusarium, phytosporous wilting is another fungal disease, manifested by a change in the color of the bush, wilting and drying of the plant. Develops in drought conditions on hot days.
For treatment, use "Fundazol" and "Benorad".
- Rot affects strawberries during the rainy season, damp and cool weather are ideal conditions for the spread of the infection.
- Maintaining the distance between the bushes when planting
- Weed removal
- Regular loosening and mulching of the soil
- Do not overfeed with nitrogenous fertilizers that stimulate the growth of greenery
- Timely removal of diseased and decaying fruits
Treatment with chemicals: according to the instructions for use, use for the treatment of rot "Horus", "Teldor", "Fundazol", "Bayleton" and other fungicides.
- 10 drops of pharmacy iodine diluted in 10 liters of water is an excellent remedy for weekly spraying as a prophylaxis and for treatment
- Dissolve 50 g of dry mustard in 5 liters of hot water, strain and dilute with the same amount of water after two days of infusion.
How to prepare strawberries for wintering
In September, the beds with strawberries are put in order: they remove all the regrown mustaches, peduncles and stalks, cut off the damaged, withered and dry leaves, pull out weeds, loosen, mulch with sawdust and peat, humus.
At the end of the summer cottage season, strawberry beds are covered with foliage, branches, straw, fallen leaves, covered with spruce branches.
Such measures contribute to the creation of an additional "cushion" and better snow retention.
For a novice summer resident, all these tricks and wisdom may seem too complicated.
But with experience, all strawberry agricultural technology becomes commonplace, bearing amazing fruits - fragrant fragrant berries, loved by children and adults.